As our wireless networks are making leaps and bounds in connectivity, our cars, devices—even our cities are ready to start talking to each other in the service of faster, safer and more efficient modes of transportation.
LTE vehicle-to-everything (V2X) refers to the architectural enhancements specified by 3GPP to enable vehicular communication over LTE infrastructure. The specification encompasses communication between vehicles and with toll collection devices, parking fee collection devices, pedestrians, smart traffic signals, buildings, traffic cameras, and even roads to improve the driving experience and improve safety.
V2X includes four subcategories: vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-network (V2N), according to the use cases and services defined in 3GPP TR 22.185. (See Figure 1.) These V2X applications can use “cooperative awareness” data—from other vehicles, roadside infrastructure, application servers, and pedestrians—to gain knowledge of their local environment. For example, information received from other vehicles close by that provide intelligent services such as cooperative collision warnings that improve road safety and traffic efficiency.
Figure 1. The four subcategories of V2X
Types of V2X applications
Vehicle-to-Vehicle applications expect other vehicles that are in proximity to each other and have authorization from a network operator to exchange V2V application information such as location, speed, and other attributes.
Vehicle to-Infrastructure refers to the transmission of V2I application information to Road Side Units (RSU) or other locally relevant application servers.
Vehicle-to-Network applications communicate with external application servers, such as enterprise payment systems (EPS) for toll collection.
Vehicle-to-Pedestrian applications exchange information between vehicles and pedestrians. For example, a pedestrian that has a wearable device that transmits a signal to a vehicle.
V2X applications are evolving rapidly as car manufacturers harness the increasing computing power and improved wireless technology being developed by network companies to transform the way people drive their cars. The information that cars collect from and sends out to the V2X network will be used to improve the driving experience for all drivers on the road. V2X technology could also benefit cities, as vehicle movement data could be used to improve traffic flow and design better roads and traffic infrastructure. The promise of V2X is that it will make both cars and roads safer.
Smarter Cars. Imagine you are leaving your house to drive to the office. As soon as you turn on the car, your vehicle connects to your home to check if your doors are locked, lights are turned off and the security system is activated. As you get on the highway, your car communicates your position to nearby cars, which then uses the information to adjust their speed and paths, keeping traffic moving at a steady pace and improving everyone’s fuel efficiency. When you approach intersections, your car communicates with the upcoming traffic signal to confirm and coordinate the best approach speed or to calculate alternate routes to avoid red lights. You rarely need to stop and wait, thus saving time and fuel.
Safer Roads. V2X is also about making our roads safer. According to the World Health Organization, there are 1.3 million fatal accidents every year across the world. Many of these deaths could be prevented by vehicle technology that relays safety-related information to vehicles to help drivers and cars react faster to hazardous road conditions. V2V communication lets cars that are stuck in traffic inform other vehicles around them of the situation so as to prevent pileup accidents and to minimize traffic jams. Data collected from car sensors such as radars and cameras and shared wirelessly via V2X communications allows cars to see around corners to inform them of hazards around the bend and prevent collisions at intersections. Vehicle movement speeds, positions, and paths can be communicated, so as to avoid collisions and coordinate car movement patterns, eliminating unnecessary congestion.
LTE is here to support V2X
The technology to make V2X happen is already here. Various government bodies and automobile manufacturers are working together to create a wireless standard for this new communications network. Dedicated Short Range Communications (5.9 GHz DSRC – 802.11p) is the product of these efforts. DSRC is a protocol designed specifically for the needs of automotive communications. It boasts high transfer speed, low latency, fast network acquisition, robust security and very high connection reliability.
Besides wireless communication, accurate positioning information is also a key component of ensuring the safety benefits of V2X. While Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology alone provides adequate positioning for navigational purposes, advanced GNSS units can provide positioning with accuracy down to a meter or less, allowing for the collision avoidance capability envisioned for next-generation V2X.
V2X Use Cases as per 3GPP Spec 22.885 :
References and Abbreviations:
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